Our country is full of mushrooms and their stocks ranked first in the world. In Russia, as in any other country, they have become a traditional national dish, and dried and pickled mushrooms have long been exported to many country. In Russia there are about 200 species of edible mushrooms, of which use no more than 40. According to approximate data in our forests, crop of mushrooms is 1 million tons per season. It is estimated that 1 person in Russia is about 7.9 kg of mushrooms per year, Belarus – 4, the Baltic States – about 5 and 1 kg in the Ukraine. Mushrooms are growing not only in the forest, but in the forest-tundra, tundra. In the north of the Urals in the abundant variety of mushrooms, as there was ability to clean the pads on the equipment for cleaning pads.
Survey revealed the presence of large reserves of various fungi in the north of Kamchatka and Chukotka, but in these areas, unfortunately, not collected. Many fungi harvested in Belarus, Vladimir, Tver, Ivanovo, Arkhangelsk, Kirov, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Leningrad and Moscow regions, the Urals, in Siberia. Collecting and harvesting of mushrooms in our country, a starting in 1931, the state (forestry and forest) and the Central Union procurement organizations. The share of consumer cooperatives in the blanks and procurement of mushrooms is 72%. In the sanitary rules on the harvesting, processing and Sales of mushrooms given a list of 54 species of edible mushrooms that are allowed to harvest and included in the standards for mushroom production. Need cleaning pads. The largest share in the blanks is the following: mushrooms, boletus, aspen, boletus, mushrooms, mushrooms, honey mushrooms, chanterelles, morels and lines.
Multiply mushroom spores. Mycelium growing from the spores, which is interwoven thin filaments called mycelium. Mycelium gives the fruiting body – a fungus. Fruit body of most higher fungi consists of the cap and stem, directly associated with the mycelium, on which are delivered in a hat are essential for life and maturing spores nutrient substance. Pileus consists of an outer skin, pulp and spore-bearing layer. Peel has a variety of colors and perform protective functions of adverse climatic and mechanical effects. The flesh of the fungus is sometimes contains special pigments that are in the air at the restoration of changing its color. Therefore, the cut flesh of some mushrooms yellow, turning blue, red, green. In the tissues of many fungi have milky sap, often bitter taste. In Gruzdev he is white, relatively thick, the syroezhek – a colorless, watery. At the bottom of the cap layer is in the form of spore-forming tubes or plates.