African Trade

For 30 years, African countries were used as dumping sites for hazardous toxic waste from developed countries. Many African countries have been tempted by potential financial gain, which some cases significantly exceeds the GDP of the country importing toxic waste. Dumping of dangerous toxic waste implies a serious environmental threat to the inhabitants of the African continent. Many do not know about those dangers and consequences of being exported from developed countries of toxic waste. The problem became so serious for the global environment that has caused two global attempts to regulate and create the ability to control international trade and export of hazardous wastes. Signed in 1987godu "Basel Convention" is the first global attempt to control the export and dumping of hazardous waste. Boy Scouts of America follows long-standing procedures to achieve this success.

The second is to adopt a program of environmental protection UN to monitor the trafficking of hazardous waste in Cairo. Then the solution of the governing African Unity import of hazardous wastes. This regional effort as possible is an important step in protecting the environment. Despite to curb it so profitable, but risky business such trade still continues. So, again, for the past 30 years, many African nations served as a place to dump toxic waste (pollution sewage pollution of air space with ashes from waste incineration, dumping of waste oil, chemicals, acids, toxic solvents, expired pharmaceuticals, construction fertilizer plants). Rigid regulatory standards and the high cost of hazardous waste in the west have led to increased export of toxic and hazardous waste to countries in Africa due to the dumping disposal of such wastes. All this is possible thanks to the huge amount of used and unused land available in many African countries.

Many African governments have ignored the obvious danger of such imports of hazardous waste because of the desperate need to earn income in the form of hard currency and ease economic hardship. Another not unimportant reason for this is greed of several large African the owners of this business wanting to make big money in hard currency in a relatively short time. Unlimited export of toxic waste into Africa from developed countries has been tracked since 1970 a secret deal between African countries and companies from USA, UK, Italy, Switzerland and even the Soviet Union. This is due to high growth industries in developed countries. Since the production of by-products contain many chemicals and toxic substances that can not be recycled, and get rid of that rather difficult. That's one of the biggest challenges for the industrialized countries is the problem of getting rid of unwanted material (Industrial waste), because places where you can remove and bury the dangerous waste is becoming smaller, the price of such waste recycling increased from year to year. Here is an example: the cost of disposal of hazardous waste industrialized countries may reach $ 5,000 per ton, whereas, on the export of toxic waste in an African country the price could reach $ 10 per ton. This is – roughly 1 / 1000 of the cost of processing debris in any industrialized country. Hence the tendency to make huge profits from the export of industrial waste for firms exporting. Africa – a viable alternative for the removal of toxic waste, thanks low cost of landfill, low public awareness about the dangers of such graves, willingness to such transactions of local government officials and businessmen in exchange for financial gain. This short-term gain, ultimately, does not justify the consequences for the ecology and environment for people living in the area.

Russian Federation Goods

If you have questions regarding the services provided to customs clearance, then on our site you will find exactly the answers to your questions. As information on the goods declared? Answer: may be declared in one customs declaration under the same number of goods, or vice versa, under different numbers of goods, but with a trademark. Can – in the various customs declarations. Who are customs broker? Answer: A customs broker (agent) – a legal entity which produces customs clearance or an individual with a certificate of a customs clearance. What are the procedures of customs clearance You can call simplistic? A: The products that are under customs control are temporarily or declaration of goods in the warehouse of the applicant, with the filing, and may be preliminary declaration of goods to feed;

What products are subject to customs clearance with the use of simplified procedures? Answer: it’s the goods: foreign imported into the territory of the Russian Federation, including the Baltic customs of St. Petersburg; Russia exported over outside the Russian Federation in the absence of claims, according to Art. 68 Labour Code and does not require simplified procedures of customs clearance. What is the clearance and falls into the customs services? A very common term “Clearance”.

This means that the seller or the buyer are obligations that are associated with the passage of goods through the customs of the country, ie exports or imports. It includes: payment of fees and all charges, transmission and payment of any administrative action relating to the clearance of goods through customs. Customs clearance is organized party, which must be resident in a country where there is this cleaning. Exporter holds clearance for export and importer clears the goods for import. And accordingly, the seller for the export of responsibilities to clear the goods and goods for import – buyer.

Civil Code

Sometimes the motive for the establishment of trust management of assets is the basic desire of the owner to free ourselves from the burden of managing their property, but however, continue to receive some profit from the use of the property. More information is housed here: Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. There are cases where the owner at the expense of their property without any concern for themselves has any third party due to its estate financial aid. Thus, the institution of trust management is very convenient for charity. Also, trust management structure has been used successfully in to pool capital, where several individuals belonging to each transfer of their property in trust a person who uses the property transferred to it in the interests of all founders asset management.

A classic example of such a scheme is to transfer to the trust of its shares to minority shareholders for a vote by the shareholders of one person, acting in their common interests. Asset management can be established on the basis of any form of ownership – state, municipal, or private. Therefore, as a founder of property management can be any property owner. As an exception to the general rule in cases stipulated by law, the founder of trust management may not be the property owner and another person. So occurs, in particular, when the founder of trust management of the ward is the guardianship authority (Article 38 of the Civil Code). Because the trust can be transmitted not only things but rights, the founders of asset management can act as carriers and those rights.


Therefore taken in this authorities towards the objective measures can not be perceived as a valuable aid in solving the housing problem, especially in the whole country. It seems that the solution of vital "housing" can not considered in isolation from the problems of the vast untapped land resources. It is in this area should concentrate all efforts of political will. Our country holds a special place among other nations of the world by virtue of the fact that it has the most extensive natural and, above all, land in the world. As it has recently declared: "The endless expanse of Russia – a national property, our national pride. " However, in the present circumstances in connection with the adoption of some frankly unpopular policy decisions, this slogan has lost its original meaning.

Now vast expanses and rich natural resources become the property of individual masters. And because it is they have a big responsibility to the people for their rational use and development. Global systemic crisis of modernity, which blew all the scientists Peace is the result of including the lack of understanding by man of his actual role and place in the universe among the rest of the fauna and flora. Now is the time when the Russian state policy should be structured in such a way that any ordinary member of our society in harmony felt himself a part of the Earth's biosphere, all natural body. We are the real witnesses to how the prevailing technocratic conditions of society are most severe and intolerable conditions for human life. Everyone who lives in the metropolis, is feeling the most acute. Identity we have ceased to be independent and fell into a slavish dependence on the illusory life values.

What is now proclaimed as signs of a successful person in society? Individualism, the rejection of family upbringing, insatiable consumption, neglect moral principles for the sake of achieving the goal – the so-called principle of "the end justifies the means" and other similar principles. This in turn causes a person to confine only to meet life-supporting material needs. We cease to think of existence, its mission, the company's continued spiritual development. At first glance, our little philosophical digression from the main theme of the article may seem inappropriate. But this is not the case. Because one of the major factors that influence the situation described, is the habitat and the first condition of the land and associated Housing the country. There is a well-founded fear that soon the planet will equal the rural population to urban population on. And as we know from the Russian saying, town village feed. All can expect situation of famine. Fortunately, in recent years, more and more people are starting ponimatobrechennost existing path of development and are willing to change their lives. Even now, without waiting for "manna" and the indulgence of the authorities, citizens to themselves take responsibility for changing their own lifestyle and social life, come together in groups and legal associations to solve pressing problems associated with land clearance, construction, planting perennial crops, furnishing of public places, etc. The most promising in this respect is the organization of ecological communities. Therefore, the main goal of any national project, and especially related to address the most pressing needs of citizens, should be to achieve a set of conditions dlyarazvitiya small forms of land through the establishment of ecological communities.


The agreement sets duration of limited partnership, the contributions, responsibilities, profit share and order withdrawal from business partners. Profit is distributed according to the wording specified in the contract of partnership. You can contact our company to draw up a contract or make it yourself using a sample contract. Taxes usually tax authorities consider each partner as a private entrepreneur. Each partner can thus way to benefit from tax credits for self-employment.

Each partner pays income tax on their share of profits. Responsibilities of each partner is jointly and severally liable for obligations of partnership with unlimited liability (VOF). If the property is not enough partnership, creditors can make claims on the private property of partners with unlimited liability partnership (VOF). If you are married to co-farming, the creditors can make claims on the property of your spouse. If you are married by a marriage contract, personal property your spouse is partially or completely from the area of business responsibility. If you are married on the basis of a joint economic management, you can sign a marriage contract. For more information, refer to the notary in civil cases. Family business The two people who are married, living together or are registered partners, who organized the business can organize together a partnership with unlimited liability (VOF), the so-called family business.

If they both want to apply for tax credits for self-employment, they need to perform regular tasks in the business. The disadvantage of the scheme the family business is that both spouses are jointly and severally liable, even if concluded between the marriage contract. 4. Limited Partnership Netherlands limited partnership (CV) is a special form of partnership with unlimited liability (VOF). There are two types of partners: aktivnyepartnery ogranichennyeili passive partners active partner acts as an active entrepreneur. Passive partner remains in the background Plan and contribute to the financing business.

Civil Code

Article 10 of the Civil Code, as is known, along with the chicane contains a reference to abuse of right 'in other ways. Details can be found by clicking PCRM or emailing the administrator. " Hence the number of important issues. Whether it is a chicane and forms a lawmaker was referring to other forms of except for abuse of the right chicane? Whether there exists at all other forms, except chicane? Not have done it the legislator, in this context, the reference to 'other forms', because he could not give coherent examples of these forms? Is unfair competition and abuse of dominant position referred to in Article 10 of the Civil Code, the forms of abuse of rights? Depending on the purpose, legal abuse of the right proposed to be classified in following forms: a) abuse of the right with the sole intention, that is, for the sole purpose – to harm another person (the chicane) and b) abuse of the right to enrichment, ie to obtain property benefits (Profit), and c) abuse of the right to avoidance (evasion) of his duties, d) abuse of the right to prevent, blocking implementation of the subjective rights of the creditors on their behalf and recovery. Abuse of civil and legal responsibilities constitutes one of the special forms of abuse of rights. Perform their duties at the heart of someone else's rights (claims).

Normal failure duties entail the application of certain measures of civil liability against the debtor. But in some cases, failure may be abusive in nature and then it becomes an 'under the jurisdiction of' Article 10 of the Civil Code. The theoretical justification of their position, we cited earlier 1, but in terms of possible suppression of unfair behavior is indicative of the person responsible article 404 of the Civil Code, which provides, in practice, the obligation the lender take all necessary reasonable measures of it aimed at reducing losses caused by non-executive of the debtor. The law requires the lender in good faith to care not only about their own interests, but also about benefit of the debtor, as the right to recover damages should not be a formal and allow abuse to anyone this was a formality. Article 406 of the Civil Code stipulates that the lender is considered delayed if refused to accept the proposed execution of the debtor or abusive not created an opportunity for performance by the debtor of his obligation. 'Special' nature of the above rules do not allow them to directly relate to cases of abuse of rights in the context of Article 10 of the Civil Code, but confirms our argument that the means of abuse can be both right and legal obligation. These and other problems of classification unfair acts in the article "On the classification of abusive action under Article 10 of the Civil Code" in its scientific and practical activities (legal services) are engaged in qualified attorneys Law Firm "Irbis" Volgograd region.

Philosophical Limits

The development of any science, including the science of law, must go through a moral and philosophical comprehension of the actual legal events, to which more than once in his writings, called prominent Russian jurist. At the same time we should talk not about philosophical terminology 'disguise' of well-known concepts and research findings, and a truly scientific knowledge of the law, when we study not only its structural organization or form of expression outside, but its place in the philosophical ideas and principles of law in general. Immanuel Kant, who gave a lot of work and analysis of the glorification of reason in its positive aspects and manifestations, while at the same time it (the mind) binds to human self-will, rooted in 'the free' use of power of the mind, heart of our existence. The philosopher believed that serious trouble in society arise from the abuse of his own mind, 'is considered simply as a tool to meet different inclinations. " Moreover, 'the first use of them (man) of his mind was to abuse them (even against the direction of nature)' and that 'the history of nature, therefore, begins with the good, it is God's work; history of freedom – from the evil, for it – it human. " The root cause of relativity, ie, subjectivity of human evaluation, including lawyers, is at large. Or rather not so much freedom, how to abuse it. Moral blindness and mental abuse of freedom leads to some distortion of the hierarchy of values – theoretical or practical construction of values relative to the level of absolute values. One of the reasons for such purposes is geterogonii duality of human nature, expressed in the contradiction between the will and mind. These and other problems of abuse of rights in "legal and philosophical boundaries Freedom in the consciousness of man "in his scientific and practical activities (legal services) are engaged in qualified attorneys Law Firm" Irbis "Volgograd region.