Scholarships Erasmus Mundus (Program for Cooperation in Higher Education). This scholarship is provided by the European Community. The purpose of it – the maintenance of European masters courses and the introduction of the European Higher Education in less-developed countries. Scholarships are available for 5,000 students from third world countries, who have higher education and wish to continue their studies in Europe at the level of Master. Also, the scholarship provides opportunity in 1000 for teachers from these countries to conduct research in their field.
Scholarships INTAS (grant to support scientists of the CIS countries). The purpose of scholarship assistance and support to scientists in the former Soviet Union with the participation of European partners. Fellows are invited to listen to one of the courses: a course of advanced training and research. Scholarships may be provided to all existing areas of science. University Scholarships Agency of the Francophonie AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie). Scholarships are available for study, internships and conduct research in various fields.
The main requirement is a membership institution, where she learns or running candidate for the scholarship and the institution that takes him to study at the AUF. Scholarships Ministry of Finance of France. The proposed Ministry of Finance conducted training in Internal Revenue Service, Public Finance and Customs. Some fellows training programs (such as DESS, Ecoles Nationales) could be international students if they would be a bidding process. There are youth scholarships for programs international exchange of various youth forums, festivals and competitions. Sports scholarships are awarded athletic facilities. Every year in France come to the Russian high-class coaches. National Institute for Sport and Physical Education in Paris for several years cooperates with his partner, and Russia. Bottom line: enough scholarships. Choose the best for you a scholarship, send a request to its receive a special department in the French embassy and wait for an answer. More details about each scholarship and the rules of its receipt, you can visit the official website of the Embassy of France in Russia and in the Cultural Center of France Moscow. Remember that the scholarship is intended to cover the costs for training and accommodation. Pocket money from the French government you get. So here you need to consider how much money you take with you. And if you have a great desire to learn, to teach the language to provide for their documents to the French embassy, to be patient and wait!
Zamenhof after with great zeal began for study. He studied English, French, German, Greek and Latin. Based on my knowledge, he concluded that the new language should include suffixes, prefixes and roots of the language they learned, if any person nationality will be able to find in the universal language, something of his own, relatives, friends in their language. Work on the international language, was slow, since by that time already Zamenhof graduated from university and began practicing medicine. In result in the development of a new language was not enough time.
The years passed before work on the grammar of the language and its vocabulary has been completed. Here, a new obstacle. For publishing the book needed the money. Throughout 2 years of Ludwik Zamenhof searching for sponsors to finance his book. And then, finally, he was lucky. Work of interest in his future father-in and gave him money to publish brochures.
So in 1887, saw the light of rather thin book entitled "An international language. Foreword and a complete tutorial. Himself the author of the pseudonym Dr Esperanto. The word "Esperanto" in Zamenhof created the language means "hopeful." This title author gave their language, because the basic idea of its creation was a hope that people all over the world unite by means of international communication. Basis Esperanto alphabet is Latin. But consists of 28 characters: 5 vowels, 2-semivowels and 21 consonant letters and each letter corresponds to one sound. International language grammar is very simple. It includes 16 of the rules, and in them there are no exceptions.
It was also accepted and approved the decision to create a modern Serbo-Croatian language. Was taken and a decision on the original authors of texts: it was recommended not to expose their texts, recorded with one alphabet to another rewrite. Of a core of historical dictionary of the Serbian and Croatian language, which consists of 21 volumes, was begun in 1881 and completed in 1959. In the dictionary includes 280,000 words that were used in the Serbian and Croatian languages since ancient times and ending with the mid-19 century. In March 1967, Croatia signed the "Declaration on the name and position of the Croatian literary language." It was initiated by representatives of the Croatian intellectuals: T. Ladan, M. Krlezha, D.
and R. Brozovich Katichich. The declaration put forward demands for the recognition of equality between the four languages, which include in addition to the Serbian and Croatia, and Slovenia's still with the Macedonian language, and the appropriateness of using the Croatian language in Croatia. Along with this event, there was one: the main organization of Culture of Croatia was proclaimed the Serb side of the refusal of further participation in the work on the Dictionary of Serbo-Croatian literary and colloquial language. " The result of the "Declaration" was a stop integration policy languages. This was followed so called the "Croatian Spring", the purpose of which were those aimed at fighting for greater autonomy for Croatia. In 1971 he saw the light of the work, which is called the "Croatian orthography. Its authors were Croat linguists M.
Mogush, S. Babic, and B. Fink. The manual describes the rules of grammar and spelling system in the Croatian language. This event was a challenge to the Yugoslav authorities, resulting in the book was banned. Somehow it a copy was in London, where she was published. To date, there is the fourth edition of this book, which is the standard grammar of Croatian language. Today, the Croatian Government has a policy the so-called purists whose goal is to fight for the purity of the Croatian language, the exclusion of the old loan-words from the language and replace them with neologisms, in which should be based Slavic roots. However, in practice were extended only to those newly formed words that are used in the office. Along with this there were neologisms, which were based Serbian roots. And interestingly, they are sometimes forced out words that for centuries were considered Croatian, especially words chakavskogo kaykavskogo and dialects. Thus, the Croatian before the collapse of Yugoslavia had a tendency to self-development and therefore the differences between the two languages – Serbian and Croatian – naturally exist, but among them there are similarities, due to which they are combined into a single language group.